Missions on Mars introduction (ENGLISH)


Aliens are Mars? In this corner of the net we will publish curious pictures taken from the specially launched Mars-sensors, and we will highlight some bizarre and abnormal details in the photos made public by NASA. But before going to the pictures, we will make a small and fast track of all the probes sent on this wonderful and mysterious planet also called the red planet.

Mariner 4 US

This was the first probe to visit our beautiful “red” planet on July 14, 1965, passing about 10000 KM from the planet and taking the first 22 black and white images. After the Mariner 4 many other probes were sent now.

Russian probe March 2

This was the first space probe to orbit around Mars in 1971.

Russian probe March 3 1971

This probe dropped a lander on the red planet who lay on the surface but unfortunately worked only for 20 seconds and then suddenly stopped. Experts believe the failure was caused by a Martian dust storm. During the same year, NASA also launched the first orbiter that successfully reached the orbit of Mars.

Viking twin probes

And here we are in the middle of the 1970s. The Viking twins were both composed of an orbit and a lander and were also the first to take very detailed photos of the Martian soil, and they also managed to map about 97% of the red planet . There was then a stop at Mars exploration that lasted more than 20 years, though in the meantime there were exploration attempts which failed completely and in some cases only partially successful.

Orbiter Lander Phobos 1 and 2 Soviet

Phobos 1 disappeared into Mars in 1989, even Phobos 2 shoots suddenly near phobos (a moon of Mars).

Mars Observer

Launched by Cape Canaveral on 25 September 1992, where communications were lost as he was about to enter the orbit of Mars on August 22, 1993.

Orbiter and lander russi (March 96)

They had to carry some European experiments but unfortunately failed because of launching accidents in 1996.

Mars Global Surveyor

It was launched on Nov. 7, 1996 and reached Mars’s orbit in 1997, it was also the first in twenty years of success to succeed. He studied the entire surface of Mars and the atmosphere, equipped with wide-angle cameras.

Mars Phatfinder lander

Successfully landed on the red planet on July 4, 1997. Phatfinder uses an innovative revolutionary airbag system for landing.

Mars climate orbiter of the United States

Launched September 11, 1998 by Cape Canaveral, it was designed to function as an interplanetary weather satellite. The orbiter carried 2 scientific instruments copying an atmospheric depth sounder and a wide and medium-angle color camera and combining an electronic image recorder. Mars Climate Orbiter was lost on September 23, 1999, when he arrived in Mars orbit. The engineers concluded that the loss of this satellite was probably entering the atmosphere of Mars too low and therefore probably burned. Similarly, the 2 ever-known Probes called Mars Polar Lander and Deep Space 2 were also in 1999.

Mars Odissey USA

Launched on April 7, 2001 and arrived in Mars on 24 October 2001 with on-board scientific experiments.His mission is to detect water ice and radiation in the environment as well as to act as a repeater for communications of spacecraft that will arrive later in 2003-2004.

Mars Express

Launched on 2 June 2003 by the European Space Agency along with Beagle, it entered the orbit of Mars on December 25, 2003. Its Lander module lost communications breaking into the Martian soil due to a mistake in assessing the density of the atmosphere in the area landing.

Spirit and Opportunity

Spirit was launched on June 10, 2003, arriving in Mars on 3 January 2004. His mission ended in March 2010 while Opportunity was launched on July 7, 2003 and arrived on March 24, 2004, still active today. Both rover just landed began to show us photos of the Martian landscape.

Curiosity rover

It was launched on November 6, 2011 and landed on Martian soil on August 6, 2012. Curiosity is a Nasa science lab that is powered by a radio-isotopic thermoelectric generator for communications using a X-band transponder that allows it to communicate directly With earth at a speed ranging from 0.48 to 31.25 Kbps. Also equipped with an antenna operating in the UHF band that uses to communicate with satellites in orbit of Mars at a rate ranging from 125 to 250 Kbps. For its displacement on Mars, it uses 6 special wheels with independent motors mounted on suspensions called Rocker-bogie. Provided with 2 navigation cameras that are used to select the safest path for travel. Equipped with two-sided stereo cameras to avoid all possible dangers during its shifts on the Martian soil, which also serve to place its arm on the rocks and on the ground to be safely analyzed.His other goals to send gorgeous photos of Mars and his landscapes is to determine whether Mars has ever hosted life forms, climate studies, and studying its geology and many other things that I will not be able to explain here. For more details you can still visit the official Nasa website where you will find in detail all the details not only of the Curiosity jewelery but also of the other US missions listed above.

Snipparelli EDM Lander Exomars Mission (Europe)

The probe was launched on March 14, 2016. Schiapparelli along with the orbiting module called Trace gas orbiter (TGO) After a 7-month trip The downhill module and the TGO were separated as expected. The TGO (Trace gas orbiter) entered correctly in the Mars orbit, but the lander unfortunately got lost just before landing on the Martian soil about 50 seconds before touching the ground so this European mission is only partially successful This time Europe has its satellite (TGO) that orbits around the red planet and that besides the various surveys of the planet will serve for the next mission scheduled for 2020 with the hope that this time will come to an end. Meanwhile, he is still unsure of the cause that led the lander to crash into the ground. There are several theories like that of the on-board computer malfunction and others but nothing has yet been officially declared by ESA today.

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